Timeline of Mathematics

-600BC
-500BC
-400BC
-300BC
-200BC
-100BC
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1200
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1800
1900
2000
Antiquity
Middle Ages
Renaissance
Enlightenment
Modern
Mirzakhani
Perelman
Wiles
Conway
Penrose
Nash
Grothendieck
Mandelbrot
Blackwell
Johnson
Lorenz
Erdős
Turing
Gödel
von Neumann
Escher
Shannon
Ramanujan
Noether
Einstein
Hardy
Russell
Hilbert
Peano
Poincaré
Cantor
Lie
Carroll
Dedekind
Riemann
Cayley
Nightingale
Boole
Lovelace
Galois
Jacobi
Hamilton
Abel
Bolyai
Lobachevsky
Babbage
Cauchy
Gauss
Germain
Fourier
Laplace
Monge
Lagrange
Lambert
Euler
Bernoulli
Goldbach
De Moivre
Bernoulli
Leibniz
Newton
Pascal
Wallis
Fermat
Cavalieri
Descartes
Desargues
Mersenne
Kepler
Galileo
Napier
Stevin
Viète
Cardano
Tartaglia
Copernicus
Da Vinci
Pacioli
Regiomontanus
Madhava
Oresme
Zhu Shijie
Qin Jiushao
Fibonacci
Bhaskara
Khayyam
Al-Haytham
Al-Karaji
Al-Khwarizmi
Brahmagupta
Aryabhata
Hypatia
Diophantus
Ptolemy
Nicomachus
Apollonius
Eratosthenes
Archimedes
Pingala
Euclid
Aristotle
Plato
Democritus
Pythagoras
Thales
c. 300 BC:  Indian mathematician Pingala writes about zero, binary numbers, Fibonacci numbers, and Pascal’s triangle.
c. 260 BC:  Archimedes proves that π is between 3.1429 and 3.1408.
c. 235 BC:  Eratosthenes uses a sieve algorithm to quickly find prime numbers.
c. 200 BC:  The “Suàn shù shū” (Book on Numbers and Computation) is one of the oldest Chinese texts about mathematics.
c. 100 AD:  Nicomachus poses the oldest still-unsolved problem in mathematics: whether there are any odd perfect numbers.
c. 250 AD:  The Mayan culture in Central America flourishes, and uses a base-20 numeral system.
c. 830 AD:  Al-Khwarizmi publishes “Kitab al-jabr wa al-muqābalah”, the first book about – and the namesake of – Algebra.
1202:  Fibonacci’s Liber Abaci introduces Arabic numerals to Europe, as well as simple algebra and the Fibonacci numbers.
1482:  First printed edition of Euclid’s Elements
1545:  Cardano conceives the idea of complex numbers.
1609:  Kepler publishes the “Astronomia nova”, where he explains that planets move on elliptical orbits.
1618:  Napier publishes the first references to the number e, in a book on logarithms.
1637:  Fermat claims to have proven Fermat’s Last Theorem.
1654:  Pascal and Fermat develop the theory of probability.
1684:  Leibniz’ publishes the first paper on the calculus.
1687:  Newton publishes the Principia Mathematica, containing the laws of gravity and motion, as well as his version of calculus.
1736:  Euler solves the Königsberg bridges problem by inventing graph theory.
1761:  Lambert proves that π is irrational
1799:  Gauss proves the fundamental theorem of algebra.
1829:  Bolyai, Gauss and Lobachevsky all invent hyperbolic non-Euclidean geometry.
1832:  Galois finds a general condition for solving algebraic equations, thereby founding Group theory and Galois theory.
1858:  August Ferdinand Möbius invents the Möbius strip.
1874:  Cantor proves that there are different “sizes” of infinity, and that the real numbers are uncountable.
1895:  Poincaré’s paper “Analysis Situs” starts modern topology.
1905:  Einstein explains the photoelectric effect and Brownian motion, discovers special relativity, and E = mc².
1915:  Noether shows that every conservation law in physics corresponds to a symmetry of the universe.
1931:  Gödel’s incompleteness theorem establishes that mathematics will always be incomplete.
1939:  A group of French mathematicians publish their first book under the pseudonym of Nicolas Bourbaki, on Set theory.
1961:  Lorenz discovers chaotic behavior in weather simulations – the butterfly effect.
1977:  Adelman, Rivest and Shamir introduce public-key cryptography using prime numbers.
1994:  Andrew Wiles proves Fermat’s Last Theorem.
2003:  Perelman proves the Poincaré conjecture, the only one of the seven Millennium problems that have been solved to date.
c. 563 BC:  Buddha is born in India. His teachings become the foundation of Buddhism.
c. 551 BC:  Confucius is born in China. His teachings become the foundation of Confucianism.
490 BC:  Greece stop the Persian invasion at the battle of Marathon.
432 BC:  The Acropolis is built in Athens, during its golden age under the rule of Pericles.
399 BC:  Socrates is sentenced to death, refuses to escape, and drinks a cup of poison.
327 BC:  Alexander the Great invades India, having created an enormous empire across Asia.
c. 221 BC:  Qin Shi Huang unifies China and starts construction of the Great Wall.
146 BC:  The Roman army destroys Carthage, ending the third Punic War.
44 BC:  Julius Caesar is murdered.
4 BC:  Jesus of Nazareth is born in Bethlehem, establishing Christianity.
180 AD:  The death of Marcus Aurelius ends the Pax Romana, a 200 year period of peace across Europe.
476 AD:  Fall of the Roman Empire
570 AD:  Muhammad, the founder of Islam, is born in Mecca.
c. 641 AD:  The Library of Alexandria is destroyed.
800 AD:  Charlemagne is crowned as the first Holy Roman Emperor.
c. 870 AD:  Norse explorers discover and colonise Iceland.
1066:  William the Conqueror wins the battle of Hastings and is crowned King of England.
1088:  The first university is established in Bologna, Italy.
1096:  The first Crusade is launched by Pope Urban II.
1206:  Genghis Khan defeats his rivals and receives the title “Universal Ruler of the Mongols”.
1215:  King John of England is forced to sign the Magna Carta, restricting his powers.
1266:  Marco Polo arrives at the court of Kublai Khan in Beijing.
c. 1347:  The Black Death kills millions of people across Europe.
1439:  Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press.
1453:  The Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople, marking the fall of the Byzantine empire.
1492:  Christopher Columbus arrives in America, starting a new age of European conquest.
1517:  Martin Luther publishes his 95 theses, starting the Protestant reformation.
1522:  Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition circumnavigates Earth.
1543:  Polish scientist Nicolaus Copernicus writes that the Earth revolves around the Sun.
1588:  Under Queen Elizabeth I, England defeats the Spanish Armada.
1603:  William Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” is performed for the first time.
1633:  Galileo Galilei is tried by the Catholic Inquisition for his scientific writings.
1649:  King Charles I is tried and beheaded during the English Civil War.
1756:  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is born in Austria.
c. 1765:  James Watt invents a more efficient steam engine, that will power the industrial revolution.
1776:  America Issues its Declaration of Independence from Great Britain.
1789:  Revolutionaries storm the Bastille in Paris, starting the French Revolution.
1804:  Napoleon is crowned emperor of France.
1819:  Simón Bolívar defeats Spain at the Battle of Boyacá, leading to the independence of many South American countries.
1837:  Samuel Morse and others develop electrical telegraphs.
1859:  Charles Darwin publishes “On the Origin of Species”, introducing natural selection.
1865:  Abraham Lincoln is assassinated, at the end of the American Civil War.
1876:  Alexander Bell invents the telephone.
1903:  The Wright Brothers construct the first powered, heavier-than-air aircraft.
1914:  Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated in Sarajevo, starting the first World War.
1929:  The Black Tuesday stock market crash starts the great depression.
1939:  Adolf Hitler invades Poland, starting World War II.
1953:  Watson and Crick discovery the double helix structure of DNA.
1957:  The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the first man-made satellite into space.
1969:  Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land and walk on the moon.
1975:  End of the Vietnam War
1989:  Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web.